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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation) .
Feedback exists between two parts when each affects the other.
A feedback loop where all outputs of a process are available as causal inputs to that process

Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of Ariat Fatbaby Heritage Cowgirl Womens qxlWy0m5
that forms a circuit or loop. [2] The system can then be said to feed back into itself. The notion of cause-and-effect has to be handled carefully when applied to feedback systems:

Simple causal reasoning about a feedback system is difficult because the first system influences the second and second system influences the first, leading to a circular argument. This makes reasoning based upon cause and effect tricky, and it is necessary to analyze the system as a whole.



Self-regulating mechanisms have existed since antiquity, and the idea of feedback had started to enter economic theory in Britain by the eighteenth century, but it wasn't at that time recognized as a universal abstraction and so didn't have a name. [4]

The verb phrase "to feed back", in the sense of returning to an earlier position in a mechanical process, was in use in the US by the 1860s, [5] Stacy Adams Talbott Mens EvR4R38h
and in 1909, Nobel laureate Karl Ferdinand Braun used the term "feed-back" as a noun to refer to (undesired) coupling between components of an electronic circuit. UGG® Dakota Kids ToddlerYouth NupkZ

By the end of 1912, researchers using early electronic amplifiers ( audions ) had discovered that deliberately coupling part of the output signal back to the input circuit would boost the amplification (through regeneration ), but would also cause the audion to howl or sing. [8] This action of feeding back of the signal from output to input gave rise to the use of the term "feedback" as a distinct word by 1920. [8]

Over the years there has been some dispute as to the best definition of feedback. According to Ashby (1956), mathematicians and theorists interested in the principles of feedback mechanisms prefer the definition of circularity of action , which keeps the theory simple and consistent. For those with more practical aims, feedback should be a deliberate effect via some more tangible connection.

Focusing on uses in management theory, Ramaprasad (1983) defines feedback generally as "...information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter" that is used to "alter the gap in some way." He emphasizes that the information by itself is not feedback unless translated into action. [9]

Let's look as some examples to get a better understanding of discretion. Imagine that Bob is driving in a 55 mile per hour zone. Bob is traveling at 75 miles per hour. Sandy the police officer pulls Bob over. Sandy has the discretion of either giving Bob a warning or giving Bob a ticket; the decision is up to Sandy. Sandy decides not to give Bob a ticket because Bob has a perfect driving record. Bob gets off with a warning.

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Let's look at another example. Imagine that there is a large college party where there is a disturbance of the peace. The police are dispatched to the scene. The police show up and investigate. The police have the discretion to write the owners of the home a citation for disturbing the peace, or they can simply issue a warning to the owners and advise them to lower the volume. The police decide to exercise their discretion and issue a citation to the owners.


Discretion is the freedom a person has to take action in a certain situation. When it comes to police work, there is a high level of discretion an officer must use. Whether it is for deciding when to issue a ticket or utilizing a weapon, the police officer must use his own discretion.

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This document describes the original JSON format for the actionable message card format. This has been replaced with the Adaptive Card format . Microsoft recommends that new actionable message integrations use the Adaptive Card format, and existing integrations consider updating to Adaptive Card format.

Cards are meant to provide easy to read, at-a-glance information that users can very quickly decipher and act upon when appropriate. As such, the guiding principle for designing great card is "content over chrome," which means cards are straight to the point and minimize the use of anything that would be distracting such as icons or custom colors.

Card playground

Ready to experiment with your card design? Head to the Card Playground which allows you to see what your card will look like as you edit the associated JSON payload.

All text fields in a card and its section can be formatted using Markdown. We support basic Markdown.


Since all fields are processed as Markdown, be sure to escape Markdown special characters (such as or ) if needed.


Follow these guidelines when formatting text fields.

If your card represents a single "entity", you may be able to get away with not using any section. That said, sections support the concept of an "activity" which is often a good way to represent data in a card.

If your card represents multiple "entities" or is, for instance, a digest for a particular news source, you will definitely want to use multiple sections, one per "entity."


Follow these guidelines when planning the layout of your card.

Defines an image as used by the heroImage and images property of a section.

Cards are very powerful in the sense that they allow users to take quick actions without leaving their email client. When designing cards, consider making them actionable, as that will increase user engagement and productivity.

Actions are specified using the potentialAction property which is available both on the card itself and on each section. There are four types of actions:

There can be a maximum of 4 actions (whatever their type) in a potentialAction collection.

Opens a URI in a separate browser or app.

Although links can be achieved through Markdown, an OpenUri action has the advantage of allowing you to specify different URIs for different operating systems, which makes it possible to open the link in an app on mobile devices.


Makes a call to an external Web service.

When an HttpPOST action is executed, a POST request is made to the URL in the target field, and the target service needs to authenticate the caller. This can be done in a variety of ways, including via a Limited Purpose Token embedded in the target URL. For more information and help on choosing the security mechanism that works best for your particular scenario, please see Security requirements for actionable messages .

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